Glossary

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[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [X] [Y] [Z]

A

Aiki A form of self-defence, based on special principles (lit. harmony of spirit)
Aikido The 'way' of Aiki
Aite Opponent, partner
Ao (Pronounced 'Ah, Oh') Facing up
Arashi Storm
Ashi Leg/Foot
Ashi-Waza Leg of foot technique
Atama Head
Ate Strike,hit, punch or kick
Atemi-Waza Striking techniques using hand, elbow, knee, foot, etc
Ayumi-Ashi Normal walking, foot movement

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B

Bo-Jutsu Stick or staff fighting
Bu Martial or military
Budo Military arts/concepts
Bu-Jitsu Martial Arts (All inclusive)
Bushi A knight of feudal Japan (A social class)
Bushido The moral ethical code of the bushi, formulated originally 14th Century
Butsu-Kari See Uchi-Komi

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C

Chitsai Small
Chikara Strength
Chu-Gaeri Forward rolling breakfall
Chui A caution - 5 point penalty for a serious infringement of the rules or a second Shido penalty

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D

Dan Step, 'Leader' Grade (generally a black belt holder)
De (v. deru) To come out, to advance
Do (a) Way, path, etc.  This word was used frequently in Chinese and Japanese philosophy in the sense of the way of doing an act in the moral and ethical sphere as well as the simple physical.  Professor Kano 'borrowed' it from these sources
(b) Trunk of the body
Dojo Training Hall or room in which judo is practiced

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E

Eri Collar, of a jacket

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F

Fusegi-Kata Method, form, of defending
Fusegu To defend

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G

Gake (v. kakeru) To hang, hook, block
Garami (v. garamu) To entangle, trap, bend
Gari To reap, as with a scythe
Gasshuku Judo students lodging together for training
Genki Energetic, lively, active
Gokyo The forty (original) throws in judo
Gono-Kata Forms of strength
Gono-Sen-No-Kata Forms of counter techniques
Go-Shin-Jutsu The art of self protection (in all its forms)
Gyaku Reverse, upside down

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H

Ha Wing
Hadaka Naked
Hairi-Kata The way of entering (for a technique)
Hajime Begin (start contest)
Hane Spring
Hansoku-Make (v. hansoku) Disqualification for a very grave infringement of the rules or a fourth penalty (equivalelent to 10 points)
Hantai To oppose
Hantei If itís a draw in a singles competition, the two corner judges have to make the decision who they think was the better of the two contestants, hence the winner
Hara Stomach
Harai, Barai (v. harau, haru) To clear away, sweep, reap
Hidari Left side
Hiji Elbow
Hiki (v. hiku) To pull
Hiki-Wake Draw (you will hear this in a team competition or grading)
Hishige (v. hishigeru) To crush, squash, smash
Hiza Knee
Hon (a) Basic
(b) Number suffix for counting long cylindrical objects
(c) Point (see ippon), ultimate score awarded in a contest

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I

Ippon Maximum 10 point score (immediate contest win)
Ippon-Sogo-Gachi Compound win by ippon made up of a score of waza-ari added to the benefit of a keikoku penalty

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J

Ji A Japanese ideograph
Jigotai Defensive posture
Jikan Time (time out)
Jita-Kyoyei The principal that individual advancement benefits society as a whole
Jitsu, Jiutsu, Jutsu Art
Joseki The place in a dojo or hall where the seniors or VIP's sit
Ju (a) Soft, gentle.  The word is a word taken from Taoist philosophy and embodies the opposite of hard, extreme, unreasonable.  Hense the use of 'ju' in judo does not imply soft (as a synonym of easy), but rather reasonable, efficient.  Physical action in judo is not meant to be easy (weak) so much as economic.  By using the body to its best advantage and exploring the weakness of the opponent, maximum effect can be obtained with maximum efficiency
(b) Ten
Judo The gentle way - An Olympic sport, combat, art, derived from the ancient arts of ju-jitsu by the founder Professor Jigoro Kano.  A form of wrestling in which clothes are worn by the contestants.  The clothes and belt (encircling the waist twice) allow for greater range of technique.  The depth of judo in the use of tachi-waza (techniques done in the standing position) and ne-waza (techniques done in the groundwork position) require skill plus physical and mental fitness being increasingly raised to an extremely high standard.  In promotion examinations (grading contests) no allowance is conceded to size or weight, success depends solely on the individual's attributes - skills, physical and mental training standards
Judogi Judo kit - the clothes worn when practising or competing at judo (comprising jacket, trousers and belt)
Judoka A very senior high-grade judo player (at least 4th dan), but used in the West as a convenient word to describe anybody who practices judo
Ju-jitsu Arm-lock techniques
Ju-jutsu, Jiujitsu A name covering all forms of fighting, without weapons, with very drastic methods
Ju-No-Kata The forms of 'genleness', showing the principles of 'gentle way'
Jushin Centre of gravity of something or somebody

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K

Kaeshi, Gaeshi In judo this means 'counter'
Kaeshi-Waza Counter Techniques
Kake The point of throw, the point of maximum power
Kai, Kwai Society, club
Kaku, Gaku An angle
Kami (a) Upper top
(b) Paper
(c) God(s)
Kamiza 'Upper seat' - similar to joseki (the instructor's side of the dojo)
Kansetsu A joint, articulation (of the body)
Kansetsu-Waza Technique of locking limb joints
Kao Face
Karate Literally 'empty handed', a system of fighting without weapons, striking with the hands, feet, elbows, etc
Karatedo The 'way' of Karate
Karui Light in weight
Kata (a) Form.  A training method used in judo and most martial arts, a drill
(b) One of a pair
(c) Shoulder
Katai Hard
Katame, Gatame (v. katemeru) To harden, tighten, hold
Kateme-Waza Grappling Techniques
Katsu, Kappo Methods of resuscitation
Keiko Practice
Keikoku 7 point penalty for a grave infringement of the rules or a third penalty
Kempo A method of fighting, founded in Shorinji, similar to Ju-Jitsu
Ken Sword
Kendo The 'way' of the sword (two-handed fencing)
Kendogu General equipment for practicing Kendo
Keri-Waza Kicking techniques
Keru To Kick
Kesa A Buddhist monk's surplus, worn diagonally across the body.   Thus Thus their is the technique known as kesa-gatame but which in free translation into English is referred to as scarf hold
Ki Psychic energy said to be centred in the Saikatanden
Kiai A shout used to harden the body and strengthen the will when maximum effort is required
Kime (v. kakeru) To decide
Kimeno-Kata Forms of decision, which is the kata of self-protection
Kiri (v. kiru) To cut, as with a knife
Ko (a) Small, minor
(b) Old, ancient
(c) Lecture, study, think
Kodokan The headquarters of judo in Japan (Tokyo), the founder's dojo
Koka 3 point score (nearly a Yoko)
Koshi, Goshi Hips
Koshi-Waza Hip Techniques
Koshiki-No-Kata The kata of ancient forms with techniques suitable for people in armour
Kubi Neck
Kumikata The method of grappling of two contestants
Kuruma, Guruma (a) Wheel;
(b) Vehicle
Kuzure (v. kuzureru) To crumble, collapse, break down.  Thus a hold that is not quite the basic or pure form
Kuzushi The balance broken
Kyu A judo 'students' grade

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M

Ma Direct, exact, absolutely
Machi-Dojo Street Dojo, small local dojo
Mae Front
Maki-Komi Winding, to wrap or roll up, to throw by rolling oneself so that the opponent is 'locked on' to one's body
Manaka Centre 'inside' the contest area
Ma-Sutemi-Waza Technique whereby the performer (tori) falls straight onto his/her back to throw
Mata The inside top of the thigh
Matte, Matta Wait (stop both clock and contest - wait for instruction)
Mawari (v. mawaru) To turn round
Meijin Master player, expert
Mi Human body
Migi Right side (as opposed to left)
Mizu Water
Momo Thigh
Mon Gate, junior grade
Morote Both hands, two hands
Mune, Muni Chest

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N

Nage (v. nageru) To throw
Nage-No-Kata The forms of throwing, fifteen selected throws executed both left and right to train the participants in body control and appreciation of judo technique
Nage-Waza Throwing techniques
Na-Me Wave (of water)
Nami (v. naruberu) To place in a line, arrange in a row
Ne (v. neru) To lie down
Ne-Waza Groundwork techniques, technique done in a lying down position
Nige-Waza (v. nigeru) Escape technique (usually in groundwork)
No Belonging to.  A link word as in nage-no-kata

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O

O Big, large, major
Obi Belt
Oki Big
Okuri (v. okuru) To send forward
Omoi Heavy
Osae-Komi Hold is on (when hold is effective)
Oshi (v. osu) To push
Otoshi (v. otosu) To drop
Owari The end

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R

Randori Free practice
Rei Bow (done before and after every contest, randori or training session)
Renraku Connection, communication, contact
Renraku-Waza Combination technique
Renshu To practice
Renzoku-Waza Comprehensive name for techniques linked up in any way
Ritsu-Rei As with tachi-rei meaning 'standing bow'
Ronin An unretained samurai warrior
Ryote Two hands
Ryu School.  Attached to most or the names of the old ju-jitsu systems (e.g. Kito Ryu)

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S

Saikatanden The lower abdomen
Samurai A knight of feudal Japan (a social class).  See bushi
Sasae To support, prop
Sei-Ryoku-Senyo The principal of maximum efficiency in the use of mind and body
Senaka The back (of the body)
Sensei Teacher, Master, Senior (or person of high standing)
Senshu A competitor, champion
Seoi (v. seou) To carry on the back (translated into English seoi-nage is more commonly known as 'shoulder throw')
Seppuku The bushi method of committing suicide.  Normally erroneously called hari-kiri
Shiai Contest
Shiai-Jo Contest area
Shido 3 point penalty for a slight infringement of the rules
Shihan Master, past-master, founder
Shiho Four quarters, four directions
Shiki Style, ceremony
Shime, Jime (v. shimeru) To tighten, strangle
Shime-Waza Strangulation techniques of neck locking
Shimoza 'Lower seat', the ordinary members side of the dojo
Shisei Posture
Shita Below, underneath
Shizen Nature
Shizentai Natural (upright) posture
Sode Sleeve
Sogo-Gachi Compound win by ippon made up of a score of waza-ari added to the benefit of a keikoku penalty
Sono-Mama Freeze, do not move (stay still)
Sore-Made That is all (end of contest)
Soto Outside, outer
Sukui (v. sukuu) To scoop up
Sumi Corner
Sutemi (v. suteru) To throw away
Sutemi-Waza Sacrifice techniques, technique whereby the attacker throws away his own body, sacrifices his own posture

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T

Tachi (v. tatsu) To stand
Tachi-Rei Standing bow
Tachi-Waza Standing techniques (Techniques performed in the standing position)
Tai Body
Tai-Sabaki Body movement
Taiso Physical exercise
Tani Valley
Tatami Rice straw mats used in dojos and Japanese houses (the mats used in the Dojo)
Tate Vertical
Te Hand
Te-Waza Hand techniques
Tekubi Wrist
Toketa Hold is broken.  A command given by the referee to indicate to the timekeeper that the 'count must stop' when a contestant has effectively broken the hold by which he was being secured
Tokui Favourite, special
Tokui-Waza Favourite technique
Tomoe Turning over, twisting over, whirling over.  It is difficult to find the exact translation in English, but tomoe-nage freely translated is commonly known in English as stomach throw.  See hara
Tori (v. toru) (a) The name used often in technical explanation for the person who applies the technique (the attacker);
(b) To grasp, to hold in the hands
Tsuki-Waza Poke, stab, thrust or punch technique
Tsugi-Ashi A manner of walking in which one foot leads at each step and the other never passes it
Tsukuri (v. tsukuru) The action of breaking the opponents balance
Tsuri To 'fish up' (e.g. tsuri-komi; lift up and pull forward)
Tsuyoi Strong

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U

Uchi Inside
Uchi-Komi (v. utsukomu) To beat against, to go in.  A repetitive exercise where the throwing technique is taken to the point of kake
Ude Arm
Ue Above, on top of
Uke (v. ukeru) To receive.  The name used often in technical explanations for the person on whom the technique is applied (the defender)
Ukemi The 'breakfall'
Uki (v. uku) To float buoyant
Ura Back, rear, reverse
Ushiro Behind, back of
Utsuri (v. utsuru) To change, to move

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W

Wakare (v. wakaru) To devide, seperate
Waza Technique
Waza-Ari 7 point score (nearly an Ippon)
Waza-Ari Awasete Ippon 7 point score added to a previous 7 point score resulting in Ippon (contest win)

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Y

Yama Mountain
Yoko Side
Yoshi Continue, carry on after freeze (normally heard after Sono-Mama)
Yowai Weak
Yubi Finger or toe if used as in ashi-no-yubi
Yuko 5 point score (nearly a Waza-Ari)
Yusei-Gachi A win by superiority

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Z

Za-Rei Formal kneeling bow or salutation
Za-Zen Kneeling Motionless in concentrated thought, meditation
Zori Toe-grip straw sandals used by judoka when in judogi moving to and from the mat edge (Footwear worn in the Dojo - Flip Flops)

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